UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
^B| ; .
DEPARTMENT 07 GAME AND PIS
M-fiorO»^. UT^^ft frnd FisL. Con
AN AID TO FISHERMEN; A
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE LAWS
AND REGULATIONS IN GEOR-
GIA; A GUIDE TO THE BEST
FISHING PLACES -IS OFFERED
WITH THE HOPE OF BUILDING
THE SPIRIT OF CO-OPERATIVE
—Peter S. Twitty, Commissioner
Digitized by the Internet Archive
A feller isn't thinkin' mean — out fishin';
His thoughts are mostly good and clean — out fishin'
He doesn't knock his fellow man
Or harbor any grudges then;
A feller's at his finest, when — out fishin'.
The rich are comrades to the poor — out fishin';
All brothers of a common lure — out fishin';
The urchin with the pin and string
Can chum with millionaire and king;
Vain pride is a forgotten thing — out fishin'.
A feller gets a chance to dream — out fishin';
He learns the beauties of a stream — out fishin';
An' he can wash his soul in air
That ain't foul with selfish care
An' relish plain and simple fare — out fishin'.
A feller has no time for hate — out fishin';
He ain't eager to be great — out fishin';
He ain't thinkin' thoughts of pelf,
Or goods stacked high upon a shelf,
But he's always just himself — out fishin'.
A fellow's glad to be a friend— out fishin';
A helpin' hand he'll always lend — out fishin';
The brotherhood of rod and line
An' sky an' line is always fine;
Men come real close to God's design — out fishin'.
A feller isn't plottin' schemes — out fishin';
He's only busy with his dreams — out fishin';
His livery is a coat of tan,
His creed? To do the best he can.
A feller's always mostly man — out fishin'.
AS A FOREWORD: No real sportsman will
catch more fish in a day than he, his party, or
his family can comfortably and pleasantly con-
sume. He will, too, put undersized fish back in-
to the water, that they may mature and furnish
an equal bit of sport for those who are to come
JUST A THOUGHT FOR
THE feel of a game fish tugging and pulling on the
other end of your line. When he tries to outwit you
and you try to outwit him. It's the greatest game
of all sports. None of the others bring to you the per-
sonal and individual thrill of satisfaction when you win.
You've landed your fish .
The click of the golf ball; the impact of the gun when
you fire or the smell of the burned powder — there is a
thrill in both of them; in either of them. But it isn't the
same thing as landing your fish. That's when your
mind has left the drain of business thoughts and cares;
when your troubles and worries have dropped into com-
plete forgetfulness. Your physical fatigue falls off you
and is as though it never had been, and your minor ail-
ments are being given a. tonic which the nature of human
enthusiasms alone can compound. You're just "out
fishin' ", and that's all there is to it. Rather, it's all
there is to anything at the time. Just "fishin' ".
In the midst of the ever-day efforts to expand business,
to overcome competition, to grow commercially, our
busy people, as a people, find little inclination to pause
and take stock of some of Nature's great blessings to
Georgians in the form of a Wise Alchemists' most wonder-
ful compound for the bigness and betterment of human
progress and prosperity— human happiness. The ma-
jority of us do not realize the broad scope of our own
wonderful out-doors where the Great Exterior Decorator
has so lavishly demonstrated a completely unexcelled Art
in our woods and hills and streams; and too little <!<> we
familiarize ourselves with the enticements to happiness
and health He has stored these beauty-spots of a wonder-
ful Handiwork with, to give to them a full appreciation of
their proper part in our lives. It is not an exagger-
ation to say no spot on this continent is better blessed
Scene on Tallulab River.
with a greater variety of these gifts of nature than is the
State of Georgia. That nowhere in America is there af-
forded better opportunities for all the varied happiness
and satisfactions to be found "When a feller goes a
fishin' " than in Georgia.
There is no State in the Union that offers to the angler
a greater variety of sport fishing than can be found in
Georgia. Literally thousands of miles of splashing,
swift, clear water rivers and creeks, wind their course
around the picturesque mountain sides of North Georgia,
and furnish an abundance of rainbow and brook trout ; the
larger streams and their tributaries of Middle and South
Georgia, which find their way to the Gulf of Mexico or the
Atlantic, are teeming with bass, bream, perch and other
species; and along Georgia's marvelous coast, where the
rare climate the year round is unexcelled, there is a great
diversity of thrilling salt water fishing for such species as
Channel Bass or Red Fish, School Pass, Winter and Sum-
mer Trout, Drum, Sheepshead, Mackerel, Croakers,
Our commonwealth imposes on the fisherman in this
state fewer restrictions than in most states, far more
moderate regulations than in many states; and less of
legal requirements than in probably any state in the
Union. It bids to its citizens, and to his friend from
elsewhere, a cordial "welcome" and asks of him little else
than that he be "a true sportsman", have a mind for the
happiness also of his fellowman, and to remember that a
sportsmanlike conservation makes for the continuity of
that happiness in the future years.
GEORGIA'S FISHING LAWS ARE
One of the first thoughts of a good citizen, when he is
thinking of a fishing trip, is "What is required of me".
Georgia's fishing laws are extremely liberal; none of
them are oppressive. Fewer restraints are imposed upon
the fisherman in Georgia than in any other state. Many
of the restrictions found by fishermen elsewhere, are
left in this state to the sense of propriety and sportsman-
ship of the individual. To illustrate, other states limit
the number of fish of each species that may legally be
caught in a day; and most of them prescribe a size limit
by prohibiting the taking or possession of fish under
certain length in inches specified by law. In many other
states the sale of fresh -water fish is prohibited by law.
None of these restrictive prohibitions are imposed upon
the fisherman in Georgia. If he fishes with a hook and
line, he may take as many fish as he pleases, regardless
of their size, so far as the written law is concerned. Nor
is there any prohibition in law to prevent him selling his
fish if he desires. In these things he is restrained only by
the conscience of the good sportsman who must realize
that the destruction of undersized fish is a waste, and that
a catch in excess of what can reasonably be consumed is
not conservation for his own and his fellow-sportsman's
NO FISHING LICENSE IS REQUIRED IN
Most of the states have enacted statutes requiring a
license to fish. That tax must he paid and the license
procured before the fisherman can legally enjoy one of
the greatest of all out -door sports. It isn't so here. No
fishing license or fee is required to fish in Georgia, in fresh
waters, except when one catches shad fish for sale; in
other words when the taking of shad fish is not a sport,
but is commercialized. (A special shad fish law has been
enacted in this state, and will be furnished to anyone on
application to the Tidewater Commissioner, Brunswick,
FISHERMEN NOT REQUIRED TO
CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEPARTMENT.
In other states many thousands of dollars in revenue
are raised annually from the sale of fishing licenses, as a
Beautiful "Twin Lakes" Near Valdosta.
part of the revenue for the support of their departments
of Game and Fish; in Georgia the fisherman is not called
upon to contribute one penny to the support and main-
tenance of the Department of Game and Fish. The only
revenue received by this department, in Georgia, is from
the sale of hunting licenses. And yet, most of the money
received by the department is actually expended in ad-
ministration of the fishing regulations, in propagation of
fish with which the streams of the state are restocked, in
salvaging marooned fish during periods of "freshets" when
they would be lost, and in similar work having to do ex-
clusively with this branch of its conservation work.
DRASTIC LAWS ARE
It has always been the policy of the present administra-
tion of Georgia's Department of Game and Fish to dis-
courage radical restrictions by statutory enactments.
Instead there has all the while obtained the idea and belief
that a greater individual and collective co-operation is to
be found in leaving much of what other states have writ-
ten into laws to the sportsmanship and conscience of the
fisherman, and that a general observance of reasonable
restrictions will flow to a greater degree from that spirit
of co-operation and accord. That, naturally, makes for
a more uniform administration than mandatory enforce-
ment of rigid requirements.
There are, however, certain fundamental requirements
or provisions in Georgia's fishing laws, which prescribe
penalties for violations which have to be classified as
important. The department makes earnest and con-
tinuous efforts to uniformly enforce, as it is expected
IT IS A VIOLATION OF LAW
To take fish by means of baskets, traps or similar de-
Banks' Lake, a Fish Haven in Lanier County.
To cause to be placed in any of the waters of this State
any trap, basket or similar device for the purpose of tak-
To seine or net for fish, except as specially permitted.
To dynamite fish.
To place in the waters in this State any poisonous sub-
stance, such as walnut hulls, lime or any other substance
likely to destroy the fish.
To poison fish in any manner.
To shoot fish.
To muddy a stream or any other body of water in
order to take fish therefrom by means of hand-grabbling
All of these fundamental regulations, it will be immedi-
ately observed, are conservation measures designed to pre-
vent wanton waste and in no wise affect the pleasures of
PERMISSION OF THE LAND-OWNER
Permission of the land-owner is required, by law, to
fish in waters on or adjacent to his land. Verbal consent
only is necessary.
PRIVATE PONDS AND THEIR
There are certain exemptions from nearly all of the
comparatively few regulations in Georgia's laws. This
touches the matter of private ponds.
The owner of a private pond, his family, or his tenants
with the consent of the owner, are permitted to fish with-
in the bounds of such ponds at any time and in any man-
ner they desire, except that none of them, or anyone else,
may dynamite fish, shoot fish or poison fish. It is im-
portant, though, that this special exception accorded in
the matter of private ponds includes only the owner of
the pond, members of his family, or his tenants when
AYhile statistics have not been compiled showing the
economic value of private ponds to land-owners and their
families, experience has been sufficiently broad to justify
the department in efforts to encourage and aid in the con-
struction of private ponds, both from the point of home
pleasures and in increasing the variety of food for the
family. Private ponds in addition to furnishing food for
home use, often prove a convenient source of revenue
through the sale of surplus fish.
In furtherance of the desire to aid in increasing I lie
number of private ponds, the Department of Game and
Fish will gladly co-operate with country land-owners and
country home-owners by furnishing advice and informa-
tion on the subject, obtaining for them plans for con-
structing such ponds, and will be glad to supply an in-
teresting booklet of 35 pages, illustrated, entitled "Fish
Ponds on Farms", which gives not only clear directions
for the making of ponds, but describes suitable fish for
pond culture, their foods, habits, etc. Where any es-
pecial problem confronts the land-owner in his prepara-
tion for such a pond, the Department of Game and Fish
especially invites correspondence and tenders him its aid
in endeavoring to meet and overcome his problems.
SPECIAL PERMITS TO SEINE.
The law prohibits seining for fish, except when special
permit is obtained from the Department. That is in
order to save every fish possible, and to encourage the
propagation of more fish in the streams in the State.
The Department will, however, grant a special permit to
seine for fish for transplanting under the following con-
Famous Okefenokee Swamp, a "Prairie" Scene.
Where fish have been marooned in eddy-
places, or in any still water where they are lia-
ble to perish from drouth, a permit will be is-
sued upon the recommendation of the County
Game Warden. Such fish must be caught and
transplanted under the personal supervision of
the County Game Warden or his assistant.
This provision is entirely one of conservation. Persons
knowing of conditions existing where fish are likely to
perish, or otherwise be destroyed, are especially requested
to notify the Commissioner of Game and Fish, State
Capitol, Atlanta, Ga., in order that prompt steps may be
taken to save them.
A great deal of this work has been done by the De-
partment in past years, frequently with the liberal co-
operation of local citizens. That was particularly true
during the spring and summer of 1929. Over a million
adult fish were saved, by being rescued by game wardens
and deputies after floods and freshets, from spots in
which they had been marooned when the water was high
and left when the waters receded with no outlet to running
streams. An idea of the importance of this kind of con-
servation work may be had by thinking of the many
thousands of fish one pair of adults will produce in a
PENALTIES FOR VIOLATING
Penalties are necessary in the enforcement of all regu-
latory enactments. Without a penalty they would not
be valid. An Act of the General Assembly of Georgia of
L925 fixes a penalty for violation of the state fish laws
(except dynamiting) as follows: a fine of not less than
$25, nor more than $200, and all costs of court; or, not
less than 30 days nor more than 90 days on the chain
gang; or, not less than 30 days nor more than 90 days in
jail, either or all of said penalty to be applied in the dis-
cretion of the court in which the trial is had.
"A Day's Catch" from a North Georgia Lake.
HEAVIER PENALTY FOR
There is a heavier penalty for dynamiting fish, indicat-
ing of course that this unsportsmanlike method of de-
struction is deprecated by the state's lawmakers as well
as its Department charged with the duty of carrying out
conservation measures. The penalty prescribed by law
for dynamiting fish is a fine of not less than $100 and
not more than $1,000 together with all costs of court; or,
not less than three months nor more than twelve months
on the chain gang; or, not less than three months nor
more than twelve months in jail; either or all of the penal-
ties to be applied within the discretion of the court where
the case is tried.
It is obvious that this provision of law is not excessive,
but at the same time that it is intended to prevent wanton
destruction. Among fishermen there is no spirit of
sportsmanship or honor on the part of an individual who
uselessly destroys in large numbers, cither by the use of
dynamite or poison, thai which nature intended to be of
benefit to the human family, and which his state is seek-
ing to properly conserve in such a way as to bring the
greatest benefits to the greatest number of people.
CERTAIN USES OF GILL-NETS UNDER
The law prohibits the ordinary or general use of gill-
nets. By a special order of the Board of Game and Fish
there is one limited exception.
There are in some waters predatory fish, as there are
predatory prowlers among the animals on land. They are
a menace to the supply of game fish, destroying either
young fish or spawn.
Under authority given it by law, the State Board of
Game and Fish, under date of January .SO, 1930, pro-
mulgated "Official Order No. 117", which permits the
use of gill-nets only during the months of January, Febru-
ary and March, and limits the authorization exclusively
to the taking of gar, carp and sucker fish under definite
restrictions as to the size of the mesh to be used even for
this purpose. The mesh of such nets must be not less
than two and a quarter (2)4) inches square, or not less
than four and one-half (4^>) inches long when stretched.
The order provides that, when any other fish than carp,
gar or suckers are caught with gill-nets, such other fish
must be returned to the waters immediately. Any per-
son having in possession or retaining any other fish so
taken, may be prosecuted for a misdemeanor. It also is
prescribed that any net of a smaller mesh than provided
in the special order shall be confiscated by the game
wardens. It is especially to be remembered, however,
that the use of gill-nets in salt water rivers, .-•recks and
estuaries is prohibited at all times.
There was, of course, a reason for promulgation of this
special order; that reason being a desire to exterminate,
as far as possible, carp, gar and sucker fish, which arc rc-
cognized as predatory or destructive fish, from the streams
where they have done great damage. The carp in par-
ticular is a menance to all species of sport fish. A twenty
pound carp will produce upward of two million eggs.
None of our nest-building fish, such as bass, bream, etc.,
commonly produce in excess of 20,000 eggs. The average
production of black bass is 15,000 eggs, and that of the
bream is considerably less. The carp, where unchecked,
can, by mere weight of numbers, destroy practically all
the spawning beds of nest-building fish, and the special
order of the State Board referred to is in furtherance of
the Department's policy of conservation.
ALL STREAMS MUST BE KEPT OPEN.
No sportsman cares to or wants to ''corner" or hem up
the supply of any of his fellowman's out-door sport.
There is a legal provision in Georgia, therefore, covered
Jurf Fishing at Sea Island Beach
in section 603 of lite penal rode, which carries this re-
If any person shall place in the waters of any
river or creek, or any fresh water drain or dam,
any traps, nets, seines or other devices for catch-
ing fish, unless the main channel of such stream
is left open for a space of ten feet for rivers and
one-third of the channel of creeks, at low mark',
unobstructed for the free passage of fish, up or
down stream, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.
POLLUTION OF STREAMS A GROWING
While the poisoning of fish in any waters in Georgia is,
as it ought to be, prohibited by law and carries a very
heavy penalty, there has not been necessity heretofore to
make similarly severe statutory enactment touching the
pollution of streams through various agencies. Yet the
Department realizes that there is a constantly increasing
menace in the state from this source of danger. Various
forms of pollution have not reached anything like the
danger point in Georgia already reached in many of the
other states, but it has in recent years been gradually
becoming more and more a problem with us, and it is
only a question of a few more years until it will be really
alarming. There are several reasons. Rapid increase in
population in the larger centers is one of them, since that
means greater pollution of streams in their neighborhood
through municipal sewerage. In the long run that is
not only a menace to public health in the vicinity of the
affected streams, but is destructive to fish life. The
most serious menace comes from the refuse from manu-
facturing enterprises; cotton mills, dye plants, pulp mills,
refining plants, fertilizer factories, bleacheries, rayon mills
and other industrial plants. These enterprises are, in
keeping with the state's progress, multiplying rapidly
each year, and as the march of commercial and industrial
progress goes on the incident menacing condition relative-
ly increases. The Department of Game and Fish has
A Fisherman's Paradise in Georgia.
absolutely no authority in matters of this kind, unfortu-
nately, and the authority of the State Board of Health is
SPORTSMEN AND STATESMEN
MUST DO IT.
In its reports, through the press, in special literature,
this department has repeatedly called attention to this
condition, and has sounded the warning as best it can
under the circumstances. The matter, however, is one
which properly addresses itself to the attention of the
Legislature, and the Department feels it but a duty to
draw public attention to the increasing danger from such
stream pollution, in order that the people themselves may
discuss it with their representatives in the General As-
sembly and impress upon the representatives the neces-
sity for such remedial legislation as will forestall grnve
results which are bound to come to the fish supply, unless
the Legislature provides a remedy. There is, of course,
complete realization of the fact that proper measure of
respect must be paid to the matter of industrial, manu-
facturing and textile growth and development with its
vast benefits to the state, and that ill advised measures
would, with that in view, not be in keeping with a general-
ly progressive state.
In order to meet the condition in the best possible man-
ner under existing circumstances, the Department of
Game and Fish has, during the past two years, had one
of its best qualified men engaged exclusively in this line
of work, and has been making a study and survey of pollu-
tion of streams in the state, and applying remedial efforts
by inspiring voluntary co-operation. In many instances
correction of bad conditions has been brought about in
this way, despite the fact that this Department has no
plenary power whatever in the premises. More success-
ful advancement in this branch of the work can come only
through Legislative aid; that is by the provision of au-
thority under which to operate.
FOREST FIRES ARE A WOEFUL
Dealing with the subject matter of conservation could
not be complete, even in major part, without reference
to an unconscious and unthoughtful form of destruction.
To the casual observer any connection between forest
fires and depletion of the fish supply undoubtedly will
seem so remote as to appear fantastic. It isn't. The
connection is a direct one, and has an even more rapid
effect of deterioration in the supply of economic wild life
than upon the fish supply. At the same time the unin-
formed layman is aware of the fact that muddy waters
drive away the best species of game fish, and these are
the more desirable for food purposes. The object lesson
is in the fact that the best fishing is in the clear-water
streams, while the muddy waters are infested with the
predatory enemy of what are commonly classed a* \hc
game fish. The carp for instance, is recognized as a
menace, and "suckers" are in the "mud fish" classifica-
Scientific study has brought to light the fact that the
most serious of soil erosions is traced directly to burning off
woodlands and forests. This has been found particu-
larly true in the Piedmont region, where the practice
causes the water to flow off more rapidly into the streams
carrying with it heavy erosion. It is this which takes
into the streams a great amount of silt, dirt and refuse in
the upper watershed, where the rushing waters accumulate
all of it on their way to the ocean. When, after a period
of heavy rainfall, one's attention is drawn to the markedly
muddy condition of a river in the middle or lower portion
of the state, thought probably does not turn to the ques-
tion where the "mud" comes from or, if it does, the idea
passes off with the conclusion that it came from around
Twilight on Famous Lake Burton.
the bend. It doesn't. That muddy condition started
its formation well up to the headwater of the river, where
denuded lands were washed into the creeks, then poured
into the river, and so on it accumulated as the increased
volume of water made its way to the natural outlet.
Proper drainage of farm lands; leaving natural growth
in places where best suited to arrest or check erosion;
intelligent clearing of land in geographical locations which
form a water-shed, cessation of the practice of burning
lands along the water-shed clear of all ground-growth will
materially contribute toward a correction of what is ac-
tually a scientific evil. Though it will be ages before
such a thing could be, a continuation of the unscientific
practices of the present day which are producing an ever
increasing erosion will eventually bring about such a
leveling of the hills toward the streams that eventually
the hills will have disappeared.
The subject matter is one which applies generally in a
study of the broad scope of the practice of conservation,
and in the proper study of which there is no better avenue
to future results than in the class rooms of our schools.
LOCAL OPTION LAWS TO
There is no general law in Georgia fixing a closed season
against fishing. There is, though, a special statute
which authorizes any county in the state, by action of
its grand jury, to fix what has been commonly termed a
"closed fishing season". Where the county grand jury,
acting in conformity with the special law, defines a given
period of time, in which fishing in the waters and streams
in that county shall be prohibited, it then becomes the
duty of the State Department of Game and Fish to en-
force that law. The purpose of the law must make itself
clear to anyone who will call to mind the fact that at a
certain period of the year nature provides for the re-
stocking of the streams and waters through natural
propagation. It is the spawning season. During the
period in which the fish are on the bed, and when, if left
On the Alapaha River, South Georgia.
alone, the countless thousands are hatched to make the
future supply, taking the adult fish from the bed means
the loss of untold future supply both from the viewpoint
of sportsmanship and of food economics. To illustrate
the point the following is quoted from a letter received
from one of the experts of the Federal Bureau of Fisheries :
"I could be quoted, if desired, as stating that
no bass or bream is to be found on the nest unless
he has eggs or a new hatch under him; that if the
parent fish is removed the eggs or new hatch will
be a total loss, and that this amounts, for bass,
to an average of about 5,000 and for bream per-
haps 1,000 potential fish; that these fish mature
in two or three years and become parents; so
that, whereas under the present system (when
there was no protection during the spawning
period) there is a possibility of a day or two of
goodfishingbyrobbingthe bed of the guardian fish,
though under a system that provides immunity
during the eight or ten weeks of the breeding-
season would result in a very few years in such an
increase that good fishing could reasonably be ex-
pected throughout the balance of the year, wher-
ever weather conditions were favorable for bit-
The logic and common-sense of it has been very general-
ly accepted by many Georgia counties in availing them-
selves of the authority to set up local option laws, and
nearly 100 counties have, through action of their grand
juries, fixed a period in which fish may not be taken,
during the spawning period in the respective communi-
ties. The present method, however, has been the cause
of some confusion in the state, because of the absence of
uniformity in the application of the local-option, thus
making enforcement similarly somewhat confusing. For
that reason some thought has been given to the problem
whether or not the end desired is to be better accomplish-
ed by setting up one uniform, general state-wide "closed
season" law. A measure to that end was introduced in
the State Senate in 1929, and passed that branch of the
Assembly unanimously, but was not reached for passage
in the House before adjournment; the result being that
the state is still working at this time under the local-
GEORGIA'S FISH HATCHERY.
Some time ago the Department of Game and Fish
reached the definite conclusion that it was advisable l<>
augment nature's propagation for re-supplying the
streams, in order that certain species might be more
abundantly brought forward, as well as •<> build up more
impoverished or entirely depleted localities with those
species which might be artifically propagated. Hence,
the Fish Hatchery.
Georgia's Fish Hatchery was established about Janu
ary 1, 1929. It is located in a picturesque valley about
five miles west of Summerville ; about thirty miles north
of Rome. In the short period of its operation it has been
an exceptionally gratifying success, and has won for it-
self the highest kind of commendation from unexpectedly
large numbers of Georgians and visitors from other
The land for the Hatchery was donated by one of the
public-spirited citizens of Chattooga County. The en-
tire plant, including the hatchery buildings, the resi-
dence of the superintendent, the lakes and all other
equipment, has been bought, paid for and developed
Avithout one cent of appropriation from the General As-
sembly of the State. The hatchery was built and is
maintained by funds left over each year, after all operat-
ing expenses of the Department of Game and Fish are
paid — and the Department is operated and maintained
entirely on the proceeds of hunting licenses, not a dollar
being appropriated for it out of the funds of the state.
State Fish Hatchery at Summerville.
The Fish Hatchery already is recognized and ac-
credited one of the most complete and up-to-date of the
smaller hatcheries of the United States. A representa-
tive of the federal Bureau of Fisheries, after visiting
Georgia's first hatchery, had this to say of it:
"In my thirty years in fish culture I have been
connected with or familiar with many trout
hatcheries, both of State and Federal owner-
ship. I do not know of, and I do not believe
there is one anywhere that has so much results
to show for so little in cost; nor that permits of
expansion at as low an additional outlay."
It is the purpose of the Department that the plant
and equipment at the Hatchery shall be extended from
time to time in order that the annual production of fish
for planting in the streams of the state may be propor-
tionately increased. Up to this time only rainbow
and brook trout are being propagated in large quantities.
These cold-water species are being raised for restocking
the colder mountain streams of North Georgia. Bass
and bream will be raised during this year, but these
warm-water species will not be distributed in large quan-
tities until 1931.
The superintendent of the Hatchery contemplates
producing more than a half a million rainbow trout for
distribution during 1930. As additions and expansions
can be made the production will, of course, be propor-
tionately larger. Persons desiring these fish should write
to the Commissioner of Game and Fish, State Capitol,
Anyone desiring bass, bream, or other warm-water
species of pond fish this year should make application
direct to his Congressman, who will be glad to have
such fish supplied from one of the several Federal Fish
CERTAIN OBJECTIVE AIMS.
The Department of Game ami Fish of Georgia is not
working haphazard. In addition to its routine and regu-
Fly Casting in a North Georgia Stream.
latory work there are certain definite objectives toward
which the Department is striving, and to accomplish
which it needs and solicits the co-operation of every fisher-
man in the State. Among these the objectives which
are felt to be most practical and most essential for the
proper conservation of our State's fish life are:
(1) A uniform state-wide closed fishing season in lieu
of the present local-option law. This should be designed
to cover the spawning season of fish in this state, and
should be based on accurate, scientific knowledge compre-
hending the spawning season of the leading species of
game fish, and giving proper consideration to the climatic
differences in North and South Georgia.
(2) A law prohibiting the sale of fresh water game
(ish during the period of such closed fishing season as
may be prescribed by a state-wide law.
(3) A law providing for a moderate fishing license fee
for persons fishing in the fresh waters of the state, the
proceeds to be used for the establishment and mainte-
nance of fish hatcheries in the state where sufficient fish
may be propagated to restock the streams and waters
where the supply is being diminished or practically de-
pleted. Under the present laws the entire expense of
administering the fishing laws and providing maintenance
of the state's first Fish Hatchery comes from funds de-
rived from the sale of hunting licenses. The result is
that propagation and re-stocking in that branch of the
Department's work is not as broad as it otherwise could
(4) Adequate laws to insure the protection of our
streams and other fishing waters against pollution by in-
dustrial waste and other causes.
HINTS TO CAMPERS AND
The Department has found from experience there is
often a degree of unthoughtfulness among fishing and
hunting parties. These suggestions are made, therefore,
as reminders or hints for recollection:
Don't overlook the fact that there would really be little
opportunity for any of us to enjoy the pleasant privilege
of fishing but for the courtesy of the man who owns the
land from which we fish. Show your appreciation of the
courtesy extended by the land-owner by respecting his
Be careful with fire! A lighted match or cigarette
carelessly tossed aside in dry brush or undergrowth, may
cost your generous host the loss of many thousand dollars
through a destructive fire. Don't build a campfire where
there will be danger of the blaze spreading, and be sure 1
to see that all the fire is out before leaving the camp.
Smoldering embers are extremely dangerous.
Leave a clean camp. Burn all the waste paper and
garbage, so the visitor who comes after you may be re-
minded that a good sportsman preceded him, and that
the man who let you enjoy your pleasure on his property
may have no cause to regret it.
Don't cut down or otherwise abuse or destroy growing
trees. There is always dead wood enough available for
Put back in the water all undersized fish, and remember
no true sportsman will catch more fish in a day than he
and his party or family can reasonably use.
Beware of poisonous snakes, and be careful with all
TREATMENT FOR SNAKE BITE.
Every fisherman, while in the woods and swamps, is
constantly exposing himself to attack by poisonous
snakes, and his tackle box should be equipped with one
Way Down Upon the Suwaaee Iliver."
of the anti-venom outfits, which can be procured from
almost any drug" store. For the benefit of those who do
not have such first aid equipment on hand, the following-
treatment for snake bite is printed, with permission from
the proper authorities, from the Manual of the Boy Scouts:
The bite of a non-poisonous snake leaves a U-shaped
row of tooth prints, or several long scratches, if the bite
has been glancing. A poisonous snake "strikes" straight,
and leaves two punctures made by the fangs. Rattle-
snakes have rattles, of course. Unless you are sure that
a snake is not poisonous, better treat its bite as below.
First Aid Treatment:
Snake poison is a chemical substance which spreads
rapidly in the circulation. Unless positive that the snake
is harmless, do this instantly:
(1) Quickly apply tourniquet (shoe-lace, necktie, bit
of cloth, belt, neckerchief, rope, etc.), an inch and a half
from the wound and between it and the heart. To avoid
gangrene, loosen tourniquet for an instant every twenty
(2) Quickly make the wounds bleed, lay open each
fang bole with an X -shape cut made by a sharp knife;
squeeze gently and rub toward wound to encourage bleed-
ing; suck wound (if there are no sores in your mouth)
and spit out the poisoned blood. Warm water may be
poured on the wound by some other helper, thus en-
(3) Quickly cauterize with Potassium Permanganate,
force a crystal or two of potassium permanganate deep
into each fang-hole; Iln^ chemical has the power of chang-
ing snake venom into a harmless substance, bui it must
be used quickly and thoroughly. Ordinary antiseptics
do not counteract snake poison.
(4) keejMjuiel; keep the part bitten as still as possible,
for muscle movement favors circulation and the spread of
(5) Quickly get a doctor's aid as a heart stimulant
may be needed.
(6) Wet dressings tend to keep the wound draining.
(7) In addition, let someone in the party kill the
snake if he can, in order that the doctor may identify the
species and know which powerful serum to use.
DIRECTORY OF GEORGIA
For the information of fishermen, the following list of
Georgia's best fishing streams is compiled and published.
For further convenience there is included the name and
address of the game warden or other representative of
the Department of Game and Fish, who will promptly
answer any inquiry concerning fishing waters in his re-
spective section and will be glad to co-operate with those
interested in arranging fishing trips.
of North Georgia.
County Stream Write To
Fannin Noontootla Creek and W. A. Wilson,
Toccoa River. Blue Ridge, Ga.
Floyd Etowah and Oostananla C. W. PropltHI,
also Coosa Rivers. Rome, Ga.
Gilmer Coosawattee, Cartecay C. C. Cox,
and Ellijay Rivers. Ellijay, Ga.
Gordon Dew's Pond C. W. Barrett,
Habersham Soquee River, Panther A. L. Ramsey,
creek and Tugalo Lake. Clarkesville, Ga.
Lumpkin Chestatee River, High- W. F. Shelton,
tower and Yahoola Rivers. Dahlonega, Ga.
Murray Jack River and Conasauga W. A. Jackson,
River. Eton, Ga.
Rabun Wild Cat and Dicks Creek, John LaPrade,
Burton, Lakemont, Seed Clarkesville, Ga.,
Lake, and Tallulah Falls R. F. D. and Chas.
Lake, Tugalo River. E. Rogers, Clay-
Towns Hiawassee River, Corbin, E. E. Sellers,
Town and Hightower Hiawassee, Ga.
LTnion Cooper Creek, Nottely and Homer Jarrard,
Brasstown Rivers. Natal, Ga.
White Dukes Creek and Chatta- M. D. Matheson,
hoochee River. Helen, Ga.
soi iiu: vst Georgia
(Streams running to Allan tic Ocean.)
Stream Write To
Briar Creek Carl Fleming, Sparta, Ga.
Ogeechee Lee C. Brinson, Millen, Ga.
J. C. Tootle, Glennville, Ga.
T. L. Beasley, Claxton, Ga.
Ohoopee ...J. H. Moore, Stillmore, Ga.
St. Marys River Chas. S. Arnow, Kingsland, Ga.
A. F. Phillips, Folkston, Ga.
Satilla River. E. R. Aycock, Waycross, Ga.
R. J. Wainwright, Nahunta, Ga.
(Streams running to Gulf of Mexico.)
Streams Write To
Kinehafoonee River D. E. Graham, Leesburg, Ga.
Muckalee Creek D. E. Graham, Leesburg, Ga.
Chichasawhaehee Creeks C. M. Clark, Albany, Ga.
Ochlockonee River Claude Rountree, Thomasville, Ga.
Pataula Creek.... ...J. B. Williford, Cuthbert, Ga.
Spring Creek .W. L. Olivent, Bainbridge, Ga.
PONDS AND LAKES.
In every section of Georgia there are privately owned
ponds and lakes in which the public is permitted to fish
under reasonable restrictions. Most of these ponds are
well stocked with bass, bream and other game fish. The
following is a list of the larger lakes and more important
ponds together with the name and address of the owner
or person controlling same or the local game warden:
County Pond or Lake Write To
Baker Power Company Lake Baker County Power
Butts Jackson Dam Pond L. J. McM,ichael,
Clayton Munday's Pond J. H. Munday,
Decatur Spring Creek Pond Ga.-Ala. Power Co.,
DeKalb Watson Pond Mr. Bob Watson,
Emanuel Coleman's Lake I. L. Price, Swains-
McKinneys Mill Pond W. M. McMillan,
Fayette ...Lee's Lake J. M. Lee, Fayette-
Bennett's Lake Mrs. I. P. Lee,
Fulton Black Rock Pond Geo. Thomas, Hape-
Houston Houston Factory Lake J. H. Davis, Perry.
Lanier... Bank's Lake (11,000 acres) __E. D. Rivers, Lake-
Long... Middleton Lake Harry Parker, Ludo-
wici Game Warden
Lowndes Ocean Pond Paul Lily, Valdosta.
Twin Lakes ...Paul Lily, Valdosta.
Rabun .. Lake Burton Chas. E. Rogers,
Talbot Juniper Lake Dozier Bros., Juniper
Ware & Okefenokee Lakes J. M. Hopkins,
Washington. ...Cilmore Pond (Hamburg) ....Gilmore Bros.,
WHEN TO FISH.
The Department of Game and Fish is fortunate in
having the co-operation of Dr. John H. Powell, a fisher-
man who has fished in Georgia waters for more than
thirty years, has an intimate knowledge of the respective
fishing advantages of the ■ different fresh waters of Geor-
gia, and who is a recognized authority on all sport fishing.
Dr. Powell contributes fishing stories regularly to one of
the leading daily newspapers of Georgia, which also
carries a "Question and Answer" column conducted by
him, in which he answers the many questions that are
constantly asked him by the anglers of the State. Through
the courtesy of Dr. Powell, we are reproducing for the
interest and benefit of Georgia fishermen some of the
answers to the questions most commonly asked him. In
order to conserve space, the questions are omitted and
only the answers printed herewith.
NOT A GOOD TIME WHEN THE MOON IS Fl LL.
"I would not advise fishing when the moon is full and
the sky cloudy, for fish are afraid of shadows playing on
the water. They are easily frightened or disturbed."
THE SIGN OF THE ZODIAC.
"Thirty years of fishing has taught me to watch the
signs of the Zodiac. I pick my fishing days when the
signs are not in the heart or stomach, for when the signs
are thus your live bait will be apt to bleed to death quick-
ly, as also will any little fish you catch and may want to
EFFECT OF THE WINDS.
"My advice is to watch the winds. Avoid East winds
on the coast or inland. From my experience, South and
Southwest winds are the luckiest, and you will usually
find these winds on the first and last quarter of the moon."
BEST IN EARLY SPUING.
"Fish arc apparently hungriest in the early Spring,
and this seems to he the best time to hag them, with other
conditions all right."
CATCH BASS IN EARLY MORNING.
"Answering your query as to what is the best time
to fish for Bass and Trout, I will say on clear days from
daylight to about nine o'clock in the morning. That is
when they are feeding. At this time use light-colored
baits — white and red plugs or weighted flys. At noon,
when the big Bass are loafing lazily along the edge of
the bank, use perch colored surface bait that wiggle.
When you cast them let them lie still just for a moment,
then reel in fast. From about four to eight o'clock in
the evening, use a plug with a yellow belly and perch
colored sides, red throat and dark back, which will dart
and dive. And reel fast".
TACKLE AND BAIT.
FISHING WITH FLY OR PLUG.
"Fishing is quite an art, particularly in using arti-
ficial baits. You must bear in mind when casting with
fly or plug the natural action of a struggling bug or insect,
that has accidentally fallen into the water. This is the
way to fool the fish. Remember, they are much wiser
today than they were thirty years ago."
FISHING FOR BASS.
"In casting for Bass, use a boat. You should have at
least 150 feet of 18 pound braided silk casting Hue, with a
good bamboo rod and reel. Cast wooden plugs, weighted
fly or pork- ring wriggler up near the bank, starting the
lure back just about the time it hits the water, 'this
can be done by changing hands with the rod while the
lure is still in the air."
"Always cast your bait overhead — never sideways.
Use a short rod, preferably a good bamboo rod. Practice
in any level open ground space, or body of water. Move
your arm and wrist pretty much as though you were
hurling a ball, and aim at a target in front. Keep your
thumb on the reel spool, but release it just as the lure is
about to touch the ground or water."
MORE ABOUT FLY CASTING.
"You will have better luck if you let your casting flys
sink, and then jump them up and down. This can be
accomplished by manipulating the rod tip."
TANGLING OR BACK-LASHING.
"If your line tangles, it is a sign you are using too
much force in your cast, or not thumbing your reel proper-
ly. For fly-casting use a nine foot rod, ninety feet of
enameled line, about eighteen pound test and a regular
fly-rod reel. Move the rod back and forth over the
shoulder until enough line is out of reach, say thirty to
fifty feet, bearing in mind that the back cast approximates
the same distance as the front cast."
MICE, WIGGLE-TAILS AND LIZARDS.
"Mice, Wiggle- tails and Lizards should be hooked
through the lips, and minnows through the lip or back,
and use on or near the surface."
GRASSHOPPERS AND CRICKETS.
"Grasshoppers and crickets give best results when
tied to the hook with a bit of fine thread and then floated
on the surface."
"All Bass — big mouth, small mouth, calico, silver,
red eye, crappie, as well as the bream and so-called
perch family like goggle eye and warmouth, — are Sun
BLUE GILLED BREAM.
"A blue gill is a Sun Fish and is native to our own
streams. His gills, or jaws are quite blue, thus his name.
He is likewise sometimes known as 'Blue Joe', and js
short and chubby in our southern streams."
BIG MOUTH BASS.
"The big mouth bass is the most difficult to handle,
not only by the angler, but also by the fish culturist, for
unlike the Trout eggs, the eggs of the Bass cannot be
taken and transplanted, because they are protected by a
gelatinous substance that prevents them being stripped
and transplanted. Fingerlings have to be secured and
planted, either from the Government or the State's
"The Horny-head, or Knotty -head, is the male slick-
head, while the female of this specie is often called the
creek chub. Either of these, however, may be a young
male before growing horns, or little knots on the top of
"Eels are of the fish family, and in no sense related
to reptiles. They are excellent food fish, and the main
fish diet of Italians."
"Suckers are plentiful in our streams, the one we
know being the little fellow with the black back and the
undershot sucker mouth. His flesh is almosl snow white,
and though full of bones, is excellent food when prop< rly
"There are millions of shad in Georgia streams,
principally in the Satilla, Altamaha and Ogeeehee. They
come up our coastal streams to spawn in the early spring.
Only a very few are ever taken with ordinary sucker
"Yes, there are plenty of alligators in the swamps in
Southeast Georgia, the greater portion making their
habitat in the great Okefenokee Swamp."
FISH FOR STOCKING PONDS.
"For Stocking ponds in Middle and South Georgia,
1 would recommend big mouth Bass and Bream. For
North Georgia, small mouth Bass and other Sun-fish."
HABITS OF FISH.
"Fish do not hear. Their keenest sense is of feel, and
vibration of any sort will scatter them in a jiffy. They
have a sense of smell and sight, but just how far they can
see is all problematical. I don't think they see very far.
Vibrations will disturb them more than anything else.
They can see in different directions at the same time, due
to the unusual shape and position of the cornea, or frontal
part of the eye. Sounds and shadows bother them tre-
mendously and fishermen will enjoy best luck if they
remain entirely out of sight."
FISH SENSITIVE TO VIBRATION.
"The successful still fisherman keeps himself well
concealed from the fish, when possible, even though you
are forced to crawl up to the fish hole on hands and knees.
And keep quiet! Any unusual movement near the
water, such as shadows, heavy walking along the bank, or
jarring or rocking your boat, will frighten your fish."
HOW TO HANDLE UNDER-SIZED FISH.
"Fish are covered with a gelatinous coating that will
stick to anything that is dry, hence wet your hands be-
fore handling them, or it is likely to cause a bacterious
growth over the dry spot that will destroy the fish."
BEST FISHING PLACES NEAR ATLANTA.
BROOK TROIT FISHING.
"It is difficult to say just what particular North Geor-
gia stream is best for brook trout fishing. Luck varies,
you know, and conditions have much to do with success
in this line. I would say that all the mountain streams
where the water is swift are good for brook trout fishing.
And there are hundreds of miles of these streams/'
The Department of Game and Fish receives inquries
practically every day in the year as to good fishing places
within an hour's ride of Atlanta, and Dr. Powell has
furnished us with the following information on this sub-
"Below I will name a few of the fishing streams within
a short Auto ride from Atlanta:
South River lakes, down near Constitution, Georgia,
for carp, catfish and bream.
Powder Creek, a good place in Cobb County, near
Powder Springs. Also near-by is Nosey and Mud Creek,
all fair bream streams, but not cats.
Knowles Creek, up near Mableton, off the Bankhead
Highway, in Douglas County, a very good stream and
full of some large fish, which can be caught best with
periwinkles and spring lizards.
Sweetwater Creek, running through Dekalb and Cobb
Lee's Mill, near Union City, containing bream, cats
and other kinds. (A small fee is charged here.)
Yellow Jacket Creek, up near Tucker, but get off the
Venable's Lake, near Stone Mountain, they tell me is
a good place, though I have never tried it out.
Go out the Roswell Road, and hit Nancy's Creek, just
before you get to the Aim's House. There is an old
abandoned grist mill nearby and the stream abounds in
Black Rock Lake, about fifteen miles from the city is
probably the best place nearby, though a fee is charged,
it being privately owned.
Nisky Lake, near Atlanta, a private place, is good. The
bass here seem to love Baltimore minnows. A permit
must be secured to fish in this lake.
The lakes near Jackson, in Butts county, are good.
Flint River, down near Nelm's farm, not far from
Fayetteville, is a good place for scaly fish. There is a
deep hole on this river known as Ann's hole, which is
Down near Union City, the Chattahoochee is good.
Altoona Creek, in Cobb County, contains plenty of
fish; also Jester's Old Mill, though not so good."
SPECIES OF FRESH WATER FISH FOUND
The following is a list of the most common species of
fresh water fish found in the rivers, creeks, lakes, ponds
and other fresh waters of Georgia. In addition to the
most common popular name by which each specie is
known, the scientific or Latin name is given, as well as
other common names by which specie is often spoken of
LARGE MOUTHED BLACK BASS.
Found in practically all of the fresh water streams. Is
a popular pond fish. Belongs to the sun -fish pond family.
Referred to in South Georgia as "trout". Female carries
from two thousand to ten thousand eggs at spawning
time. Feed on minnows, frogs, crawfish, flies, and other
insects. Is a great fighter and has excellent food value.
SMALL MOUTHED BLACK BASS.
Known in South Georgia as Rock Bass and Trout.
They are found in the clear swift streams of Georgia.
Feed on minnows, frogs, crawfish, night crawlers, insects
and flics. Excellent food value.
BLUE GILL BREAM
Equivalent to blue bream, blue sunfish, blue joe, blue
perch, and copper nose bream. Found in most of the
fresh waters of Georgia. Feed on angle worms, field and
water crickets, grasshoppers, insects and flies. Excellent
for pan fish.
Bass family. Found in all warm clear waters and more
plentiful in grassy ponds. Feed on minnows, insects and
RED BELLY BREAM.
Belongs to sun-fish family. They are found in all fresh
waters of Georgia. Habits and food are almost the same
as the Bluegill Bream.
Found in the eddy places of the streams in middle and
North Georgia. Feed on insects and small aquatic ani-
mals and also mud.
(Sal mo Shasta.)
Found in the cold waters and mountain streams of
North Georgia. Feed on minnows, grasshoppers, in-
sects and flies. Very game, and of excellent food value.
Also known as Speckle or Mountain 'Front. Found
only in the cold water mountain streams of North Geor-
gia. Noted for his fighting ability. Feed on Angle
worms, insects, flies and minnows. Excellent food value.
Also spoken of as Grindle and Mud Fish. Feed on
minnows and angle worms. Found in all the waters of
CRAPPIE OR CALICO BASS.
Commonly known in Middle and South Georgia as
Spotted Perch or Calico Bass. Found in the fresh waters
of Georgia. Feed largely on minnows and angle worms.
Excellent food value.
SPECKLED OR MUD CAT.
There are several species of catfish found in all the
waters of Georgia. The channel and speckled cat are
most desirable for pan fish. The different species known
in Georgia are the channel, blue, speckled and the mud
(Illustrations of species of Georgia fish from cuts through courtesy of KnUi-
prise Manufacturing Co., Akron, Ohio.)
THE GAME AND FISH DEPARTMENT.
In conclusion the Department desires to impress on
the people of Georgia this fact —
It is your Department. Know it and use it.
Your fishing and hunting problems are its problems.
Its service is to serve you to the best interest of all of you.
Fundamentally its object is conservation and propaga-
tion — that is, saving from waste what we have and multi-
plying it by a careful protection, that there not be an ex-
haustion of the supply of these things which nature has
given to all of us. The Department not only invites but
asks for frank correspondence on any subject touching
the field of out-door nature sports, in which you are
interested or desire aid. Its efforts in the premises,
whatever they may be, will be equally frank with you.
As a thought for visitors from other states contemplat-
ing participation in some of these out-door pleasures
which Georgia so abundantly affords, the Department
suggests they accept the same spirit of cordial co-operation
toward them in the matter of information and assistance.
In return the Department asks only that we all be real
sportsmen and seek to spread that spirit of cordial co-
operation and conservation throughout the State.
The Georgia Department of Game and Fish
does not cost the taxpayers of the State a penny.
In all the work the Department does the entire
expense is borne from funds derived exclusively
from the sale of hunting licenses. Not one dollar
is appropriated to it from the State Treasury
3 ElDfl DMSSM DbES